Regarding the implementation of IoT, insufficient interoperability among platforms tends to provoke major problems both at the technical and business levels. Typical issues are the impossibility of integration non-interoperable IoT devices into non-homogeneous IoT platforms as well as the inability of developing applications and services over several platforms and different domains. Other necessary setbacks are the dearth of IoT technology penetration, turning away of consumers and firms in using IoT technology; cost will increase in general, the impossibility of reusing of technical solutions and low user satisfaction.
Furthermore, the lack of interoperability slows and even impedes the early evolution of IoT. Ambient Intelligent Environments require seamless interoperability among components and interfaces. Also, interoperability is essential for the creation of natural transparent human-oriented interfaces of smart systems, and it holds importance for the IoT integration with Artificial Intelligence and the inclusion of recent mechanisms like blockchain security
In recent years, variety of solutions are enforced at different levels, from the device layer to complete IoT platforms, due to a good interest of both business and analysis establishments in an investigation and developing IoT technology. However, there are no reference standards for IoT and the development of one is not expected in the predictable future. Hence, IoT deployments present high heterogeneity at all layers (device, networking, middleware, application service, data/semantics), that restricts interoperability among their elements and among them. Though many projects have dealt with the development of IoT architectures in wide-ranging application domains, not many projects have addressed interoperability and integration problems among platforms. Furthermore, no proposals up to the date of the INTER-IoT project approval have been put forward to deliver a general, absolutely reusable and systematic approach to solve multiple interoperability issues existing in the IoT platforms technology.
By using the projected approach, IoT platform heterogeneity is turned from an important drawback to excellent advantage, as there’ll be no time to wait for a singular standard for practical IoT. Instead, practical IoT, even on a large scale and can be created through a bottom-up approach.
The majority of current existing device networks and IoT deployments work as standalone entities and represent isolated islands of information, unable to communicate, interoperate and share data with different IoT systems and platforms thanks to the employment of various standards and to their high inner heterogeneousness. In the occasional cases in which there is integration effort of IoT parts, it’s typically performed at the device or information layer, seeking the gathering of information from smart devices. However, there are many different levels of IoT preparation, in which it is helpful to own interoperability and plenty of different relevant objectives. From current interoperability approaches, INTER-IoT uses a layer-oriented approach to exploit exhaustive functionalities of every different layer (device, networking, middleware, application services, information & semantics).
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